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Photon counting

Photon counting is a technique in which individual photons are counted using a single-photon detector (SPD). In contrast to a normal photodetector, which generates an analog signal proportional to the photon flux, a single-photon detector emits a pulse of signal every time a photon is detected. The total number of pulses (but not their amplitude) is counted, giving an integer number of photons detected per measurement period. The counting efficiency is determined by the quantum efficiency and any electronic losses that are present in the system.

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