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Writing

Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with the debatable exception of computer languages); they are means of rendering a language into a form that can be reconstructed by other humans separated by time and/or space. While not all languages utilize a writing system, those with systems of inscriptions can complement and extend capacities of spoken language by enabling the creation of durable forms of speech that can be transmitted across space (e.g., correspondence) and stored over time (e.g., libraries or other public records). It has also been observed that the activity of writing itself can have knowledge-transforming effects, since it allows humans to externalize their thinking in forms that are easier to reflect on, elaborate, reconsider, and revise. Writing relies on many of the same semantic structures as the speech it represents, such as lexicon and syntax, with the added dependency of a system of symbols to represent that language's phonology and morphology. The result of the activity of writing is called a text, and the interpreter or activator of this text is called a reader.

Metrics Summary

Total Publications
Lifetime
36,429
Prior Five Years
10,247
Total Citations
Lifetime
47,156
Prior Five Years
9,936
Total Scholars
Lifetime
9,597
Prior Five Years
7,865

Institutional Rankings

Global (Worldwide)
Academic Institutions
Lifetime
Academic Institutions
Prior Five Years
Non-academic Institutions
Lifetime
#1
United States
#1
Malta
#1
United States
#2
United Kingdom
#2
New Zealand
#2
United States
#3
Macau
#3
Belgium
#4
United States
#4
United States
#5
Norway
#5
Japan
#6
Hong Kong
#6
United Kingdom
#7
United States
#7
United States
#8
United States
#8
United States
#9
Australia
#9
Sweden
#10
United States
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National Institutional Rankings

Publications and Citation History

Publications based on Disciplines

Scholars based on Disciplines

Publications based on Fields

Scholars based on Fields

Highly Ranked Scholars™

Lifetime
Prior Five Years

Highly Cited Publications

Lifetime