Questions and Answers

Questions and Answers (Q/A):
Your question is likely included in the following FAQs regarding general information, scholar profiles, rankings, and subscriptions. If your question is not addressed in the FAQs, you can contact us at ScholarGPS. Responses will be provided only to questions that are not addressed below.


1- What are the main features of ScholarGPS™?

ScholarGPS™ is the premier, fully indexed comprehensive database for quantifying scholarly activity. ScholarGPS™ begins by capturing authorship and citation details of over 200 million archival publications in the form of journal articles, books, book chapters, patents, and conference papers using data mining, machine learning, and other data science techniques. ScholarGPS™ subdivides and indexes this comprehensive set of authorship and citation data into 14 broad Fields which reflect typical academic divisions such as Medicine, Engineering and Computer Science, Law, and the Arts and Humanities. The Fields are further subdivided into 177 Disciplines (for example, Surgery, Electrical Engineering, Chemistry, and History) which coincide with standard academic Disciplines. Importantly, ScholarGPS™ takes the additional step to identify over 350,000 unique Specialties (e.g., COVID-19, Breast Cancer, Artificial Intelligence, French Revolution) that are associated with the Disciplines. Based on this organizational structure, ScholarGPS™ generates scholar profiles of all scholars as well as the first fully quantitative rankings of all scholars, research institutions, universities, and academic programs in specific Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties.

ScholarGPS™ data mining and machine learning algorithms are used to generate detailed profiles and rankings of more than 30 million academic, industrial, and governmental scholars associated with over 55,000 institutions. In addition, the ScholarGPS™ system includes descriptive and analytical data including rankings of over 15,000 academic institutions from more than 200 countries. Another important feature of ScholarGPS™ relative to other platforms is its search capability, which permits multiple filtering and sorting options specific to the needs of individual scholars, institutional leadership, or other customers.

2- What is unique about ScholarGPS™?

The uniqueness of ScholarGPS™ empowers scholars to accelerate their research and, in turn, increase the pace of innovation, elevate research excellence, and enable productive collaborations.

Like some research information and analysis platforms, ScholarGPS™ provides rankings of scholars, programs, and institutions. However, ScholarGPS™ rankings are quantitative and rigorous, enabled by innovative, accurate, and thorough ScholarGPS™ algorithms that are used to factually assess and organize scholarly information in all forms including publication metadata (titles, authors, publication venues, types, and dates); citations both to and from any publication; and profiles of all scholars including their affiliations, their publications, and their co-authors. ScholarGPS™ subdivides and indexes all scholarly activity into 14 broad Fields, 177 Disciplines, and over 350,000 unique Specialties. ScholarGPS™ is the only platform that offers exclusive access to rigorous, multilevel, quantitative rankings of individual scholars, Top Scholars by Expertise, and institutions as well as programs in each Field, each Discipline, and each Specialty in terms of three primary metrics: productivity (archival publication count), quality (h-index), and impact (citation count).

One of the options in our ranking methodology is to choose between a scholar's lifetime activities, or activities in the previous five years. ScholarGPS™ carefully assesses the activities during the prior five years by considering only publications during those five years and only the citations to those five-year publications. In this way, an accurate assessment of recent productivity, impact, and quality is made. With this approach, scholars who are early in their careers are treated fairly with respect to more established scholars. The ScholarGPS™ assessment of citations is unique because other platforms (e.g. Google Scholar) include citations to publications outside the five-year time window in their five-year rankings.

In summary, the uniqueness of ScholarGPS™ is highlighted by but is certainly not limited to: (1) the granularity and accuracy to which the analytics are performed, (2) unique profiles of all individual scholars (including lists of their publications, their Specialties, and their affiliation histories) which are created by and made available and made available using proprietary ScholarGPS™ artificial intelligence algorithms, (3) the individual scholar and institution ranking features, and (4) the unique profiles for institutions, Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties in terms of their trends/history of publications and citations, top scholars, and top publications.

3- How are Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties of scholars determined?

ScholarGPS™ associates all scholarly activity with distinct Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties as shown conceptually in the diagram below.

Within ScholarGPS™, Fields are the highest structural levels of expertise, such as Engineering and Computer Science, Medicine, or Arts and Humanities. Disciplines are the divisions within Fields, such as Electrical Engineering, Orthopedics, and History that lie within the Fields of Engineering and Computer Science, Medicine, and Arts and Humanities, respectively. The Fields and Disciplines were identified by the editors of ScholarGPS™ to closely align with standard divisions and subdivisions associated with the classification of Colleges/Schools and Departments within most of the academic community. Each Discipline is unique to only one Field. Specialties are areas within the Disciplines and are identified by an algorithm based on the content, count, and citations of millions of indexed publications. Unlike Disciplines which are each uniquely associated with a specific Field, a Specialty can be shared among multiple Disciplines. In general, Specialties and sub-Specialties are comingled under Specialties. For example, cancer, cancer screening, and cancer prevention are all designated separately under Specialties. Similarly, pollution, air pollution, and pollution prevention are also all designated separately under Specialties. The Field, Discipline, and Specialty profile pages can be searched using the "All" search option.

4- Can I see a list of the most recent Specialties that have been added to the ScholarGPS™ database?

Unlike our listings of Fields and Disciplines (see here), we do not explicitly list all Specialties identified by the system (there are over 350,000 of them). However, they can be easily searched using ScholarGPS™. Moreover, as trends in research uncover new Specialties, we add them as and when they appear in the archival literature. In that sense, you can always search for a Specialty using our search features. The chances that we have documented and catalogued the publications, individual scholars, and institutions represented in the Specialty are high. Essentially, if a Specialty has been the subject of some archival publication, we have catalogued it, the scholar involved, and their institution.

5- Is it appropriate to rank scholars and institutions?

The ranking of scholars and institutions is not new.
Scholars have been ranked using a variety of measures (including, for example, the h-index) for many years, and these rankings have generated both positive and negative reactions. Chief among the criticisms have been:
  1. Scholar rankings have traditionally been performed primarily at the individual scholar level, with little to no consideration given to the differences in the publication traditions or size of the many Fields, Disciplines, or Specialties. The wide variation of the numbers of publications and citations, as well as h-indices across Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties means that ranking within each of these more granular levels is required before any meaningful comparison of the scholarly activity of individuals in disparate areas of research can be made.
  2. Metrics for rankings (e.g., citation count or h-index) may not distinguish between self-citations and non-self-citations.
  3. Metrics often do not consider the number of authors of a publication, apportioning full credit for authorship irrespective of the number of authors.
  4. Rankings often do not distinguish between lifetime scholarly achievement, and more recent and contemporary achievement in emerging areas.
  5. Other factors (such as impact and productivity) are often ignored but should be considered in scholar rankings.
It is well known that institutions have been ranked for many decades. As with scholar rankings, institutional rankings have also been criticized for obvious flaws in various ranking methodologies including but not limited to:
  1. A major component of many institutional rankings is a purely qualitative reputational assessment that is derived by conducting surveys. The rigor of this methodology is questionable and leads to the so-called "halo effect" where well-known institutions can be ranked higher based on name recognition and legacy, instead of on a quantitative measure of productivity and impact.
  2. Many institutional rankings are very broad or Field-level, and do not assess any activity at the Discipline or Specialty levels. This methodology fails to capture the excellence that exists in the more precise areas of research that is conducted in many institutions.
  3. If quantitative metrics are used in the assessment of an institution, they tend to measure the output of the institution but not the quality of the faculty. This approach penalizes smaller institutions composed of highly ranked faculty members.
The proprietary ScholarGPS™ algorithms and ranking methodologies address each of the preceding criticisms of both scholar and institutional rankings.
See Ranking Terminology and Methodology for more details.

6- How does ScholarGPS™ compare to Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science?

As far as we are aware, ScholarGPS™ is the only open database that provides profiles of all active, retired, and deceased scholars, in all Fields and Disciplines, who have published at least one archival-quality article. Each profile includes the complete list of publications and affiliation history of the scholar, an accurate assignment of the scholar to their academic Fields, Disciplines and Specialties, and a wide range of the scholar's scholarly rankings in those categories. Furthermore, ScholarGPS™ also ranks institutions and programs from around the world based on the quality and quantity of active scholars in each institution. The table at Comparison of Main Scholarly and Bibliometric Databases shows how ScholarGPS™ compares against other major scholarly database systems in terms of various features including scholar and institutional profiles, scholar and institutional ranking, coverage of Fields, Disciplines and Specialties, and identification of Highly Ranked Scholars™ (among others).

By comparison, while Google Scholar allows scholars to create their profiles and share them in public, not all scholars opt to create a Google Scholar profile, and although Google Scholar ranks scholars in terms of their h-index and citation counts regardless of their Field, there are no metrics used that are specific to a scholar's Field, Discipline, or Specialties. In particular, Google Scholar does not distinguish the assignment of citations when it ranks scholars by Specialty; in other words, a scholar's total citation count (and associated metrics such as h-index) transfer to all Specialties the scholar lists, even if the scholar is barely active in a listed Specialty. Both Scopus and Web of Science provide limited profiles but require a subscription, and they assign scholars into a coarse classification of Fields or Disciplines but do not assign scholars into Specialties. Both Scopus and Web of Science provide limited profiles but require a subscription, and they assign scholars into a coarse classification of Fields or Disciplines but do not assign scholars into Specialties. In the case of Scopus, profiles classify scholars into 22 broad Fields and 176 sub-Fields but the association of scholars to Fields and Disciplines can be opaque, and each scholar may be assigned to several Fields/Disciplines. The new Scopus feature ("Discovery") allows users to search for scholars by keyword, and returns a listing of scholars ranked relative to a number of sorting options. Of the scholar quality options (total citations, h-index) the metrics (citations/h-indices) are relative to a scholar's total output, not necessarily restricted to the scholar's performance limited to the keyword search. Both Web of Science and Scopus routinely publish the rankings of top scholars, usually based on citation counts or h-indices. In Clarivate's (Web of Science) case, the ranking of top scholars is based on citation counts and is limited to scientists and social scientists. Elsevier, in collaboration with other groups, has published the "top 2%" of scientists with data drawn from Elsevier's Scopus database, and their rankings for top scholars are based on both citation counts and h-index.

Web of Science and Scopus do not rank institutions and programs. The institutional and program rankings by organizations such as US News and World Report (USN&WR) Global Ranking, The Times Higher Education World Reputation Ranking, and QS World University Rankings (all of whom use data from Web of Science or Scopus) all employ some qualitative factors such as reputation or peer review (via survey) as one of the main indicators of their ranking terminology and methodology. The quality or quantity of active scholars are not directly used for their institutional rankings. Furthermore, universities or programs with emphases on Fields such as social sciences and humanities (which tend to have fewer publications and thus fewer citations) are not fairly evaluated against universities or programs with a strong representation in Fields such as Engineering and Medicine.

With ScholarGPS™, you can sort scientists, humanists, and social scientists by their scholarly rank in their Field, their Discipline and with respect to every Specialty they are involved in, with the scholarly rankings normalized by Field, Discipline, and Specialty. We determine our scholarly rankings in a clear and purely quantitative manner; we rank based on productivity (publication counts), impact (citation counts) and quality (h-index), normalized (as noted above) to the Field, Discipline, or Specialty as and when appropriate. ScholarGPS™ Institutional Rankings in Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties are based on the quality and quantity of active scholars in each institution who are highly productive (number of publications) and have generated outstanding work of meaningful impact (citations) and excellent quality (h-index). Data used in the calculations of institutional rankings are based on the lifetime contributions of the included scholars, weighting each publication and citation by the number of authors, and excluding self-citations. Uniquely, ScholarGPS™ rankings are available separately for academic institutions (universities and colleges), and non-academic institutions (private or public industries including health care systems, and research institutions). Institutional rankings are also available for each country. Our Institutional Assessment and Benchmarking subscription provides administrators with unparalleled access to benchmarking data that allows them to assess and benchmark the institution at every level – Institutional, Field, Discipline, Program, Research group, and Specialty.

A comparison of main scholarly and bibliometric databases, highlighting various features and capabilities, can be found through the following link.
Comparison of Main Scholarly and Bibliometric Databases

7- What is the value of ScholarGPS™ to the research community and the research process?

All ScholarGPS™ profiles (Scholars, Institutions, Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties) can be categorized in a multi-resolution fashion, starting with the very broad category of the Field and descending through the subsequently more refined categories of the Discipline to the very focused Specialty. Use ScholarGPS™ to identify potential collaborators whose range of expertise matches your requirements precisely — from generalists who can provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art survey of a topic to specialists who occupy very specific niches within a topic. Moreover, the ScholarGPS™ range of metrics regarding such scholars can inform you not only of their relative standing within each of the categories described above, but of their level of activity in recent years. A research group in an institution can easily locate compatible or complementary research groups in other institutions in order to further inter-institutional collaboration. With the Institutional Assessment and Benchmarking subscription, institutions can see at a glance where their strong and weak points are, and can also identify promising research groups whose members within the institution may not be aware of each other's existence. The Institutional Assessment and Benchmarking subscription provides a wealth of data in summary statistical form as well as in detailed, individualized form with which to facilitate strategic planning at every level of the institution. Our international coverage is second-to-none; identifying international collaborations at every level has never been easier.

8- How does ScholarGPS™ contribute to the science of science?

ScholarGPS™ is involved in both pure and applied scientometrics ("the science of science") and bibliometrics ("the scientific study of citation and topic analysis"), which are core disciplines at the heart of ScholarGPS™. On the pure side, our proprietary data mining and data analytics technologies and algorithms are applied to to such fundamental problems in scientometrics and bibliometrics as author name disambiguation, author affiliation disambiguation, author affiliation history, author/co-author graph analysis, citation analysis and citation graph analysis, topic modeling, topic hierarchy modeling, core metrics, composite metrics, hierarchical core and composite ranking metrics, intra- and interdisciplinary metric correlation analysis, as well as the entire gamut of scientometric/bibliometric tool development as applied to the institution and country level. Our data scientists continue to pursue innovative methodologies using machine learning and general artificial intelligence in the twin fields of scientometrics and bibliometrics. On the applied side, the end products of this research are made available to the research community in terms of the advanced data analytics available on the site. ScholarGPS™ is particularly proud of its achievements in hierarchical metric analytics, allowing users (for example) to explore quantitatively such issues as citation patterns within a vertical section of the Field-Discipline-Specialty hierarchy, or how a scholar's performance in any given Specialty correlates to that scholar's performance in synergistic Specialties.

9- What types of profile pages are included in ScholarGPS™?

There are five types of profile pages: Institutional, Field, Discipline, and Specialty profile pages provide detailed and comprehensive performance assessments in terms of publications, citations, Highly Ranked Scholars™, top cited publications, institutional rankings, and other relevant information. We also provide lists of top scholars within the institution in the institutional profile pages. Scholar profile pages provide a complete list of associated publications, the affiliation history of the scholar, the Field and Discipline of the scholar, a list of Specialties associated with the scholar, and citation metrics as well graphical representations including total citations and h- indices. Ranking tables of scholars using various types and categories are also provided on scholar profile pages via a link.

10- Why are there several different types of searches in ScholarGPS™? Why not use only one search option?

There are twelve types of special searches in ScholarGPS™: These types of searches are made available because of significant variations in their content and scope. Moreover, the developers of ScholarGPS™ recognize the different interests of, for example, academic versus non-academic users of ScholarGPS™. Users may prefer to focus on only one type of search. The "All" search combines some, but not all features of the other search types. Users should use the "All" search to view profile pages associated with Field, Discipline, and Specialty pages. In addition, there are other searches associated with Highly Ranked Scholars™ and Institutional Rankings.

11- What are the publication data sources used by ScholarGPS™ and how is the data integrated into the ScholarGPS™ platform?

Raw metadata of publications (mainly in English) are analyzed from various sources of publicly available content including Crossref, PubMed, the US Patent and Trademark Office, the National Science Foundation (US), the National Institutes of Health (US), Microsoft Academic Graph, and Unpaywall. ScholarGPS™ data pre-processing algorithms are used to significantly improve raw metadata in terms of managing duplicates, irrelevance, publications deemed to be non-archival, structural errors, formatting, and other inconsistencies. The data are then indexed, analyzed, and updated as frequently as daily to create the information pertaining to publications included on the various profile pages using ScholarGPS™ proprietary artificial intelligence algorithms. ScholarGPS™ has disambiguated the names of scholars where necessary to individual scholars as accurately as possible. ScholarGPS™ exercises the same care with the names of institutions. In cases where ScholarGPS™ is in error, individual scholars who register and claim their profiles can make corrections to their own profiles or merge multiple profiles that belong to them.

12- Do you include patents issued from countries other than the United States as a data source?

ScholarGPS™ currently includes patents issued only by the US Patent Office. We are planning to add European, Chinese, and Japanese patents in the future.

13- What happens if a Discipline or Specialty is known by another name among some individuals or institutions?

The proprietary algorithms of ScholarGPS™ recognize most similar Disciplines and Specialties. For example, Religion is equated to Divinity, Geology is equated to Earth and Planetary Sciences, and Biomedical Engineering is equated to Medical Engineering among the Disciplines. The same clustering methodology applies to Specialties. For example, Additive Manufacturing is equated to 3D Printing, and Colon Cancer is equated to Colorectal Cancer or Bowel Cancer or Rectal Cancer.

14- How do you associate a subject matter such as “artificial intelligence” with an individual or a publication?

In this example, our sophisticated scripts tag a publication (or a scholar) as being affiliated with “artificial intelligence” if the publication includes research into the subject of artificial intelligence and/or research that applies artificial intelligence. This tagging rule is applied to other topical areas as well.

It is also important that care be taken regarding the terminology associated with some Specialties such as, for example, “damage control.” Damage control has substantially different meaning across different Disciplines such as Petroleum Engineering or Orthopedic Surgery. In these types of situations, the search results should be filtered by Discipline from the Specialty profile page.

15- What is the definition of a publication?

The publications within ScholarGPS™ include archival journal papers, archival conference papers, books, book chapters, and US patents. A publication is credited to a scholar's profile only if the scholar is listed as an author of the publication. For example, the editor of a book is not considered to be the author of the book.

16- What is the definition of an archival publication?

In general, a publication with an officially assigned number such as DOI, ISBN/ISSN, or patent number that has undergone a peer review process is considered an archival publication. Publications such as those dealing with a Memoriam, Commentary, Celebration, Book Review, Tribute, Discussion, Editorial, Farewell, Announcement, Corrections, Rebuttal, Message, or Preface etc. (even if they have some officially assigned identification number) are not included in scholar profile pages. These publications are available in the publication searches. Open access repository publications that are not peer-reviewed, such as arXiv, are also not considered archival publications by ScholarGPS™.

17- What is the definition of a scholar?

Any individual who has authored at least one archival publication is considered to be a scholar, and a scholar profile is created for them.

18- What is the definition of a program?

In general, a program means a Field, Discipline, or Specialty associated with a College, a Department, or a focused research activity.

19- What is meant by "cited by?"

"Cited by" means that a specific publication was explicitly referred to in a different publication. The citation count (the "cited by" metric) is the number of times a publication has been cited by other publications. The "cited by" metric is calculated for all publications including archival journal publications, books, book chapters, US patents, and archival conference publications. Note that in general "cited by" includes self-citations. Self-citations are references to a publication by one of the authors of that publication.

20- How are institutions categorized?

Institutions are categorized as follows:

21- What is the difference in search results when using the autofill options versus ignoring autofills when they are presented?

The search algorithms we employ provide you with the most relevant responses (as autofill options) to your query as you type your query in the search box. You can obviously elect to ignore the autofill responses we provide and submit the query by clicking the search icon or using "enter" on your keyboard for a more unrestricted search, being aware that the most relevant responses to your query were already provided to you via autofill options.
Autofill uses a semantic search approach and provides only some of the important options associated with your search. You should use the search bar (click the magnifying glass icon) if you do not see your item of interest using autofill.

22- What are the icons that appear in the search autofill results?

Various small icons are provided in the search results suggestions (autofills) to represent the entities that constitute the database for scholar profiles pages, institutional profile pages, Specialty profile pages, Field profile pages, Discipline profile pages, and publications. A list of the icons follows.

Scholar profiles

Institutional profiles

Specialty profiles

Field profiles

Discipline profiles


23- What types of filtering and sorting are available in ScholarGPS™?

ScholarGPS™ provides a range of relevant filtering and sorting options for all search results. These options include filtering by time period, Field, Discipline, Specialty, country, and affiliation, or for sorting publications by date (newest/oldest), or by citation count.

24- What is the difference between sorting and filtering search results?

Sorting applies to the entire set of the search results. Users can sort the search results by citation count, by date (oldest/newest), or by h-index. Users can also arrange the search results into alphabetical order using the sort process. Filtering creates subsets of the search results using criteria such as the institutional affiliation of the authors; a specific Field, Discipline, or Specialty; or by country of affiliation. When more than one selection is made within a filter category, "Or" is used for combining purposes. "And" is used when search results are filtered among separate categories.

25- What happens if I lose or forget my password?

If you lose your password, you can click "forgotten password" and provide the required information to reset your password.


1- What are the unique features of the scholar profiles in ScholarGPS™?

ScholarGPS™ includes scholar profiles of almost all scholars (both active and retired) from academia, industry, and state or government agencies in all Fields and Disciplines. Each profile includes all associated Specialties, the scholar's affiliation history, and graphs of the scholar's publications and citations by year. The profiles (including lists of publications and citations) are updated on a regular basis. Both scholar and institutional/program rankings are performed annually.

2- What is the precision and recall of ScholarGPS profiles?

We performed a manual evaluation of ScholarGPS scholar profiles (having both popular and unique scholar last names) using a sample of over 5000 scholar profiles from various Fields and Disciplines to estimate the precision and recall measures for the assignment of archival-quality publications to unique profiles. The average precision of ScholarGPS scholar profiles was 98.5% and the average recall was 96% . We use the (standard) notation true positive (TP) to mean publications that were correctly assigned to a profile, false positives (FP) to mean publications incorrectly assigned to a profile, and false negatives (FN) to mean publications that should have been assigned to a profile but were not assigned to it. Then

precision = `\frac{TP}{TP+FP} xx 100`

recall = `\frac{TP}{TP+FN} xx 100`

ScholarGPS also correctly and uniquely assigned Disciplines and Fields to scholar profiles with an accuracy of 95%. Despite these high precision, recall, and accuracy values, there are still a very small fraction of scholar profiles that are split into one or more profiles, and there are a very small number of archival publications that are missing from a small fraction of scholar profiles. We are hoping that scholars, upon claiming their profiles, will use the features built into ScholarGPS to merge duplicative profiles or to add or delete archival publications as required.

3- What is the email address requirement to register and claim my profile?

You are required to claim your profile if you wish to edit it. If you want to claim your profile instantly, you will need to register with an institutional email address (an address that includes both your institution's name as well as your last name). Your institutional email address should match our list of known institutional addresses. If you don't have an institutional email address, you can still register but you will need to submit a simple form for ScholarGPS™ approval before you can claim your profile. Scholars can always switch to their personal email address after completing the sign-up/registration and claiming their profile. Non-scholar users (that is, individuals who have no profile on ScholarGPS™) who register for the Premium or Ultimate subscriptions are not required to have institutional email addresses.

4- Is there a charge for registration and editing my profile?

There is no charge for registration and updating your profile. You are not required to subscribe to claim, update, or edit your profile. However, you must register to do so.

5- Do I need to provide my list of publications to create a profile?

Scholar profiles, including lists of their publications, have already been created for almost all scholars.

6- I have located my profile on the ScholarGPS™ website. How can I change, edit, or update the basic information in my profile?

You are required to register and claim your profile before you can make any changes to your profile. You can update or edit the basic information as well as provide any missing information using the "update profile" option in your login page. Edited basic information is updated instantly.

7- My profile is not on the ScholarGPS™ website. How can I create my profile?

The profiles of nearly all active, retired, and even deceased scholars from academia, industry, and governmental research facilities exist in ScholarGPS™. However, if you do not find your profile, you will need to submit this simple form upon registration. There is no need to provide the complete list of your publications.

8- What information can be edited in my scholar profile?

The following information can be edited in your scholar profile: Discipline, Field, affiliation, and history of affiliations. Users may also change their first or last names due to, for example, marriage. Users may merge profiles when both profiles belong to them upon claiming one. However, for the change of names or merging of profiles, users should submit a request form for approval. These changes are instantly updated upon approval. The changes associated with your edits are not implemented in the rankings of Fields and Disciplines until the next iteration of rankings.

9- How can I add to, or delete publications from my profile?

You can remove duplicate publications, or publications that are not yours using the "remove" button on your profile page that appears above the list of publications. You should also remove publications from your profile page that are not of an archival nature. You can only add archival publications to your profile that are already in our database using the "add" button. Add and remove buttons are only available in your profile after you register and claim your profile. Your total publications, citations, and h-index are recalculated and updated instantly upon removing or adding publications to your profile. However, changes associated with your edits are not implemented in the scholar rankings until the next iteration of rankings.

10- Am I allowed to edit information pertaining to my publications such as titles, authors, or year of publication?

No. Raw data provenance is with the publishers, not with ScholarGPS™. Any edits or changes in publication citation details should be done through the publishers.

11- There are two or more profiles that belong to me. How do I merge these profiles?

Despite the sophistication of the algorithms used by ScholarGPS™, we cannot always match all relevant publications to a single person with perfect accuracy. Therefore, sometimes your true profile must be obtained by merging two or more profiles. You should only merge profiles if the majority of publications in the associated profiles are yours. Otherwise, use the "add" and "delete" options to correct the publications in your profile.

12- What user actions require approval by ScholarGPS™?

There are three types of user actions that require approval by ScholarGPS™:

  1. The use of non-institutional email addresses for purposes of registering (and claiming profiles).
  2. Creating your scholar profile if your profile is not currently present on ScholarGPS™.
  3. Changing your institution to one that does not exist in the ScholarGPS™ data base.

Users are required to submit a simple form for the above actions upon registration or subscription.

13- How are Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties assigned to each scholar? Can these assignments be changed?

Each scholar is assigned a Discipline and a Field based on the scholar's publication record as well as their association with a unit or division. Each scholar can change the designated Discipline assigned by ScholarGPS™ from the list of Disciplines provided by ScholarGPS™ upon registration and claiming their profile. In some cases, the associated Field is automatically changed when scholars change their Discipline. Fields and Disciplines correspond, in general, to Colleges/Schools and Departments in an academic environment. Specialties are identified by an innovative algorithm based on the publication record and content of each scholar's profile including citations and productivity associated with that Specialty. A maximum of 15 Specialties can be assigned to any scholar (depending on the total number of publications). Scholars cannot add Specialties to their profiles but can delete up to four Specialties from their profile upon registration and claiming their profile.

14- How are publication lists and citations updated in my scholar profile?

Your list of archival publications is updated by ScholarGPS™ on a regular basis, as are the citations to your existing publications. You can request to receive an email alert from ScholarGPS™ when your list of publications and/or the citations to your publications are updated.

15- Why are some publications not in the list of publications on my profile page?

In general, our platform captures most archival peer-reviewed publications of all types. However, publications that are not peer-reviewed (including those with an official identification number, such as a DOI) that are associated with key words such as but not limited to: “Memoriam,” “Commentary,” “Response,” “Celebration,” “Book Review,” “Tribute,” “Discussion,” “Comments,” “Editorial,” “Farewell,” “Announcements,” “Corrections,” “Message,” “Rebuttal,” and “Preface” are not included in the scholar profile pages. In addition, publications with more than 20 authors are not included in the scholar profiles, or in ScholarGPS™ ranking schemes, because in these cases it is too difficult to ascertain the true individual contributions to the publication.

If an archival peer-reviewed publication (with exceptions such as noted above) has been omitted, you should first use the "Add" feature that appears above the list of publications (on your scholar profile page) and perform a search of our database using DOI numbers, or US patent numbers, or ISBN numbers to determine whether the publication is, in fact, in our database. If the publication is in our database, you can add it to your profile. Archival publications that are missing from our database are usually absent because of bibliographic or other publication information being improperly formatted by the publisher or distributor of the publication. These types of errors can be rectified only by the publisher, and it may require several months for such errors to be fixed. Please notify the publisher, or distributor of the publication, to rectify such errors.

16- Why are my total citations, or the number of citations of some my publications lower than in some other platforms?

ScholarGPS™ uses specific rules concerning archival publications. For example, ScholarGPS™ captures citations only from other archival journal papers, books, book chapters, archival conference papers, and patents. Some scholarly platforms include non-archival publications in the determination of citations, and therefore your citation counts may be higher on those platforms.

17- What is a predicted citations and h-index and how does it differ from other citations and h-indices as determined by ScholarGPS™?

In general, ScholarGPS™ determines citations and h-indices directly from our own database of publications. Since we purposely limit our database of publications to those we consider to be archival, we may not capture citations to a scholar's work that arose in non-archival quality publications. Additionally, some publishers do not include references in the metadata they provide for their publications. Taken together, these may cause certain citations and h-indices reported by ScholarGPS™ to be lower than those reported by other venues who are using non archival publications (such as Google Scholar). ScholarGPS™ also reports a predicted citations and h-index which is a scholar's total citations and overall h-index statistically adjusted upwards to mitigate the two factors described previously. However, note that domain-specific citations and h-indices determined by ScholarGPS™ (e.g., a scholar's citations and h-index by Discipline or by Specialty in ranking tables ) are the citations and h-indices as computed by ScholarGPS™ and are not adjusted. These non-adjusted citations and h-indices are used in our ranking procedures. Additionally, predicted citations and h indices are up-to-date predictions, but citations and h indices in the ranking tables are up to date to the end of the ranking period.

18- How do I export publications from scholar profiles?

After registration, users can choose the "Export" option from the Action menu that appears above the publication list on the scholar profile pages, or in the publications search results. To export a specific list of publications, select the desired publications and then choose the "Export Selected" option. Users can choose the format for the exported publications using the export menu above the publication list.

19- There was a name change of one of my affiliations. Which name should be used?

The most recent institutional names should be used.

20- Is external funding included for all scholar profiles?

Only funding from the National Science Foundation (US) and the National Institutes of Health (US) is included, and only for US academic institutions. Funding sources may be added for other countries in the future.

21- How do the features "Follow" and "Following" work?

Followers are users that follow you. Following refers to users that you follow. When registered users click "Follow" on a scholar's profile page, they will receive alerts regarding new publications by that author. You can check your account to see the names of scholars you are following.

22- How are the profiles of deceased scholars corrected?

We encourage users who are aware of an error to inform us by sending an email to ScholarGPS regarding any corrections, including merging of profiles or changes in the affiliations or Disciplines of deceased or retired scholars.

23- What are the types of alerts?

There are three types of alerts available only for registered users:
  1. After you have claimed your profile, you will be alerted whenever a new publication is added to your profile by ScholarGPS™. You can opt to disable this alert.
  2. Scholars who have claimed their profile can also be alerted whenever a new citation refers to one of their publications. This alert can also be disabled.
  3. If you follow a scholar, you will be alerted whenever that scholar publishes new work identified by ScholarGPS™. These alerts can only be disabled by un-following the scholar.


1- How and why are ScholarGPS™ rankings developed?

The ranking terminology and methodology used by ScholarGPS™ was developed by a panel of distinguished scholars from academia and other non-academic institutions over a period spanning several years. After its initial development, the methodology was submitted to various academic leaders for their comments and critical review for further refinement. Previous ranking methodologies have been plagued with problems such as use of subjective qualitative components, a lack of Field /Discipline /Specialty sensitivity, confusion over the inclusion or exclusion of self-citations, whether to account for the number of authors on individual publications, and a perceived bias in favor of senior scholars. ScholarGPS™ Rankings were developed on several foundational principles: that a ranking terminology and methodology should exhibit simplicity, transparency and fairness, and that the population of scholars considered within the methodology should encompass every individual (active or retired) across the entire globe who meets our definition of a scholar. In consideration of these foundational principles, ScholarGPS™ Rankings are determined purely quantitatively, and are based on metrics which capture the productivity, the impact, and the quality of individual scholars as well as institutions.

2- What are ScholarGPS™ rankings based on?

Scholars, institutions, and programs are ranked in all Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties based on the productivity, impact, and quality of scholarly contributions. The ScholarGPS™ quantitative rankings of scholars and academic institutions (including academic Departments and programs) are based on the principles of simplicity, transparency, and fairness. See Ranking Terminology and Methodology for more details.

3- What are the categories and options for ScholarGPS™ scholarly rankings?

Scholars are ranked in four categories:
  1. Overall (All Fields).
  2. Within their specific Field.
  3. Within their specific Discipline.
  4. Within Specialties.
Four ranking options are made available to the user for each of the preceding categories:
  1. By productivity (archival publication count).
  2. By impact (citation count).
  3. By quality (h-index).
  4. By the ScholarGPS™ Ranks that equally weights the contributions in each of the three preceding categories.
Additionally, each ranking option can be modified:
  1. By duration (rankings can be based upon either the scholar's lifetime publications, or only upon publications appearing in the prior five years).
  2. By contribution credit (each author can be given full credit for authorship regardless of the number of authors, or the rankings can be adjusted so that credit for authorship is divided equally among all of the authors).
  3. By citation inclusion (all citations can be included, or self-citations can be excluded).
Scholarly ranking metrics are presented both in terms of absolute rank (e.g., "Rank #5") and top percentage rank (e.g., "Top 3%").

4- What is ScholarGPS™ Ranks?

ScholarGPS™ Ranks is a combined ranking metric that is the geometric mean of productivity, impact, and quality scores for individual scholars and institutions.

5- What is the basis for the ScholarGPS™ ranking of academic institutions and technical programs?

Institutional Rankings in Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties are based on the quality and quantity of active scholars in each institution who are highly productive (number of publications) and have generated outstanding work of meaningful impact (citations) and excellent quality (h-index).

See Ranking Terminology and Methodology.

6- How do ScholarGPS™ rankings of scholars differ from other existing rankings?

Currently, nearly all other scholar ranking systems use the h-index or variants thereof. Moreover, only a limited number of scholars are ranked by other systems. Additionally, other systems rank scholars either across all Disciplines, or within a few Disciplines.

In contrast to other ranking systems, ScholarGPS™ continuously compiles relevant data for nearly all active, retired, and even deceased scholars both within and outside of academia. Second, ScholarGPS™ Ranks scholars based on several criteria, by h-index, by publication count, by citation count, and by the ScholarGPS™ Ranks that equally weights the preceding three criteria. Third, our rankings are available with different levels of granularity. Specifically, scholars can be ranked overall (with respect to everyone else), within one of 14 Fields that are composed of 177 Disciplines, within their Disciplines that are composed of over 350,000 Specialties, and within their niche Specialties. Fourth, each of the rankings can be computed based on the lifetime works of the scholar, or for the scholar's work over the prior 5 years. Rankings can be adjusted by a weighting based on the number of authors of the publications, or by giving each author equal and full credit for the publication. As an illustration of the capabilities of ScholarGPS™, Premium, Ultimate, and Institutional Assessment and Benchmarking subscribers can easily and instantly rank researchers based upon their lifetime achievements in their Field (for example, Medicine), or on the citation count of just their publications in the prior five years in their Discipline (for example, cardiology), or on their lifetime ScholarGPS™ Ranks in one of their Specialties (for example, hypertension), or using multiple other combinations of criteria.

7- How do ScholarGPS™ rankings of institutions and programs differ from existing rankings?

Most current institutional ranking methodologies rely heavily on qualitative information for reputation purposes that are derived from surveys of individuals. When quantitative data are used it is mostly based on total publications and citations but not based directed on quality of faculty.

ScholarGPS™ rankings are free of subjectivity; our rankings are based purely on quantitative measures, from which we derive metrics reflecting the productivity, impact, and quality of highly active affiliated faculty and scholars who are associated with an institution or program. The quality of the institution's or program's faculty is determined based upon each affiliated faculty member's lifetime contributions in terms of their productivity (archival publication count), impact (citation count), and quality (h-index). ScholarGPS™ Ranks not only institutions or programs, but also Specialties and Disciplines, providing fine granularity and valuable insight relative to other rankings. These metrics are determined for all traditional Fields and Disciplines, as well as in both traditional and emerging Specialties.

8- What is the role of the ScholarGPS™ scholarly ranking data in the context of promotion and tenure, or hiring of faculty in academic institutions?

It is important to emphasize several points regarding this matter.
  1. It is likely impossible to find any encompassing set of metrics that would create the perfect scholarly ranking model — one that would be embraced by all scholars and which would rank scholars with absolute and complete fairness and accuracy. ScholarGPS™ recognizes that great care should be taken in using any scores (whether those from ScholarGPS™ or any other ranking system) as the final statement of any scholar’s true productivity or value. Users should therefore not construe a lower score or ranking as necessarily representative of lesser influence or prestige.
  2. The use of verifiable scholarly ranking metrics for promotion and tenure, or hiring considerations is only one indicator of a scholar's performance. Other kinds of indicators or activities relevant to a scholar's Discipline must be considered.
  3. ScholarGPS™ metrics are derived largely from the traditional metrics used in the sciences and social sciences. Such metrics may have limited use in areas outside of their traditional domains of application. Other parameters including quality of teaching, outreach activities, as well as other modes of scholarly or artistic dissemination such as exhibitions, performances, and musical compositions should be considered when warranted.
  4. Faculty members must be given an opportunity to review, correct, and supplement their scholarly profiles before any review by administrators of their ScholarGPS™ profiles. Rankings should be regarded as provisional and may be subject to errors outside of the scholar's individual control. Scholars should be informed of the use of any system such as ScholarGPS™, if such a system is used in hiring, tenure, or promotion decisions.

In general, ScholarGPS™ strongly discourages the use single-mode evaluations of faculty members under any circumstances and does not warrant the complete accuracy of its rankings, its profiles, or the accuracy of its metrics as such might be used in personnel decisions of any nature.

9- How frequently are scholar, institutional, and program rankings calculated?

These rankings are calculated in January of each year.

10- What publication dates are used for the annual ScholarGPS™ rankings?

Consider the following examples. The rankings for 2022 include all publications up to December 31, 2021. The 2022 rankings for the previous five years include publications dated 2017 - 2021. Similarly, the 2023 rankings include publications up to December 31, 2022, and the 2023 rankings associated with the previous five years include publications dated 2018 - 2022. Previous annual rankings have been archived starting in 2022.

11- What rankings are available at no charge, and what rankings require a paid subscription?

Anyone can view for free the Highly Ranked Scholars™ (based on lifetime contributions), and all institutional rankings including programs and publications in any Field, Discipline, or Specialty. Note that users who register (at no cost) and claim their own profile can then view how they rank in their Field, Discipline, and Specialties including all options. To see the rankings of all scholars including all categories and options, a Premium, Ultimate, or Assessment and Benchmarking subscription is required.
See subscription Plans and Pricing for more details.

12- Which scholars are excluded in ScholarGPS™ rankings and institutional rankings?

The ScholarGPS™ ranking system encompasses the majority of scholars, evaluating them based on the ScholarGPS ranking methodology. However, users may note that certain scholars do not have any rankings within the system. Broadly, there are two reasons that a scholar in the scholarGPS database does not have any form of visible public ranking. On the one hand, and by far the most common reason for lack of ranking, a scholar may simply not meet the necessary number of admissible publications (>=3) to have a public ranking. In these cases, the scholar him/herself can view their ranking by registering and claiming their profile, but such rankings will never be made public, until such time as the scholar passes the required number of admissible publications. (See FAQ General Information: 16 What is the definition of an archival publication?).

On the other hand, a scholar may have no public ranking because of certain issues relative to academic integrity. ScholarGPS employs various additional methods to identify and exclude scholars from ranking whose publication and citation records exhibit abnormalities, suspicion, unusual prolific output , or a noticeable number of retracted publications in their profiles. We refrain from disclosing all these methods in detail to prevent scholars from manipulating our ranking system, as this could severely compromise the credibility of our ranking data, including that of Highly Ranked Scholars.

ScholarGPS excludes scholars from ranking systems whose publications show: (1) unusually high levels of self-citation ; (2) infringements of professional and ethical standards such as but not limited to: appearance of the same manuscript for publication in multiple venues, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, and fraudulent use of data. All such important issues must be addressed when developing rankings of scholars and institutions. Article retraction databases are used by a number of publishers and libraries to identify publications with these and similar ethical shortcomings. Occasionally, however, a retraction is published to correct an honest error included in the original article. In either case, a retraction notice signed by the authors and/or the editor of a journal is usually published in a subsequent issue of the journal, referencing the affected retracted article. ScholarGPS™ excludes scholars who have a concerning number of retracted articles from our scholar and institutional ranking system. Another example which could result in exclusion is unusual prolific output which violates the common-sense norms of scholarly productivity, which can sometimes be observed when a scholar has an unusually high number of co-authors. Yet another cause for concern is that of scholars publishing extensively in journals where the author acts as editor. Each of these, among others, raises flags which are then examined to determine whether a scholar should be excluded from the ranking process.

ScholarGPS™ reserves the right to block a scholar or institutional profile, and/or any associated scholar or institutional rankings, as it deems appropriate in its complete discretion.

13- How do I access the ranking of scholars who are affiliated with a specific institution? What is their ranking in a specific Field, Discipline, or Specialty?

There are two approaches, both of which require a Premium subscription.

In the first approach, from the home page you will access the institution's profile page and then search for any Field, Discipline, or Specialty in the search box provided. In the second approach, from the home page you can go to the Field, Discipline, or Specialty profile page of interest and then search for the institution of interest in the search box provided. In either approach, you will be provided with an ordered list of scholars at the institution of interest in the Field, Discipline, or Specialty of interest based on their lifetime ScholarGPS™ Ranks with publications weighted by the number of authors and self-citations excluded. All scholars (active, inactive, retired, and deceased) are included. If the scholar is no longer at the institution of interest and is associated with a new institution, you must proceed using the new institution as your search criterion.

14- What are Highly Ranked Scholars?

ScholarGPS recognizes an elite group of scholars whose scholarly contributions over their lifetime or over the prior five years place them at the very top of their peer group. ScholarGPS uses the pSTPR metric (see Ranking Methodology) to identify these scholars. To be considered a Highly Ranked Scholar a scholar must lie in the top 0.05% (`pSTPR\leq0.05`) of all scholars in their peer group. Highly Ranked Scholars may be recognized relative to the universe of all scholars (Overall), or within their Field, Discipline or the Specialties within which they are associated. A Highly Ranked Scholar may be recognized as such in multiple categories e.g., Highly Ranked Scholar (Overall, in the Field of Medicine, in the Discipline of Radiology, and in the Specialties of Positron Emission Tomography and Radiation Therapy) and may also be recognized as a Highly Ranked Scholar for their Lifetime and their Prior Five Years contributions. Highly Ranked Scholars therefore represent a truly elite group of scholars, and are identified as such on their profile pages, or can be searched for by Field, Discipline and Specialty (Lifetime/Prior Five Years) from the Highly Ranked Scholars™ search page.

15- How many Highly Ranked Scholars are there?

Highly Ranked Scholars are in the top 0.05% of all scholars (approximately 30 million) in the following categories: over all Fields (Overall), in their specific Field, in their Specific Discipline, and in their Specialties. However, a critical mass of scholars (6,000) is required in a Specialty for Highly Ranked Scholars to be associated with that Specialty. Furthermore, not more than 100 Highly Ranked Scholars are recognized in any Specialty irrespective of its scholar size. These requirements serve to limit the total number of individuals who are Highly Ranked Scholars. In addition, many individuals are Highly Ranked Scholars in multiple Specialties, further constraining the number of individuals who are Highly Ranked Scholars. For 2022, there were a total of 73,606 Highly Ranked Scholars in all categories on a lifetime basis where some were deceased or retired, and 33,574 Highly Ranked Scholars, in all categories, for the prior 5 years.

16- What are Top Scholars?

Like Highly Ranked Scholars, Top Scholars represent a group of excellent scholars (by Field, Discipline or Specialty) whose lifetime pSTPR metric (see Ranking Methodology) places them in the top 0.5% of all scholars in their peer group (`pSTPR\leq0.5`). The Top Scholar classification therefore constitutes a broader recognition of scholarly excellence, and should be considered as the class of subject experts. By definition, a Highly Ranked Scholar is also a Top Scholar, but the broader scope of the Top Scholar designation allows for the recognition of a greater number of excellent (but not necessarily elite) scholars in any given topic area. This is especially helpful for users seeking experts in an area where there may be few Highly Ranked Scholars. Since the association between Top Scholars and subject experts was explicit in the development of the class, ScholarGPS provides for the identification of Top Scholars with respect to the following three filtrations: Top Scholars by Expertise, which permits the identification of Top Scholars relative to Fields, Disciplines or Specialties, Top Scholars by Institution, which permits the identification of Top Scholars (by Field, Discipline or Specialty) restricted to any given institution, and Top Scholars by Country, which permits the identification of Top Scholars (by Field, Discipline or Specialty) restricted to those scholars in institutions in any given country. Like Highly Ranked Scholars, the determination of the pSTPR metric is always computed relative to the universe of all scholars (globally). Thus, a Top Scholar by Country is a Top Scholar by global ranking who happens to be active in a given country. Top Scholars may also be recognized for their Lifetime and their Prior Five Years contributions.

17- When a scholar is affiliated with multiple institutions in different time periods , how are these scholars considered in ranking assessments?

The scholar's ranking is tied to their most recent affiliation, considering contributions over both their lifetime and the prior five years contributions leading up to the ranking year.

18- Why am I, or why is my institution ranked in a Discipline that doesn't exist as a department in my university?

We rank scholars based on the Disciplines associated with their publications, and not necessarily by the department in which they reside. For example, we may rank an individual (or an institution) in Biomedical Engineering when there is no Department of Biomedical Engineering but there is a critical mass of scholars in other departments (such as Electrical and Computer Engineering or Mechanical Engineering) who are active in Biomedical Engineering. In another scenario, Biomedical Engineering might be housed in a Department of Chemical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, and we therefore rank Chemical Engineering and Biomedical Engineering separately if a critical mass of active scholars exists in both Disciplines. Note that every scholar is ranked in only one Discipline.

19- My total publications, citations, and h-index are higher than those of a colleague in my department, but you have ranked my colleague higher than me. Why?

The default rankings of individual scholars, as the well as the methodologies used to determine the Highly Ranked Scholars™ and institutional rankings, are all based on the weighting of publications and citations by the number of authors with self-citations excluded. It is likely that your departmental colleague publishes with fewer co-authors or has more citations after the self-citations were excluded. Weighting by the number of authors and excluding self-citations is the most appropriate and most fair approach. Also, based on the nature of your publications and those of your departmental colleague, you and your colleague may be affiliated with different ScholarGPS™ Disciplines and are thus ranked relative to a different set of scholars worldwide.

20- ScholarGPS™ Institutional Rankings are based on the quality and quantity of highly productive scholars, so the rankings benefit bigger institutions. Is this correct? Shouldn't rankings be based on the average, or per capita performance of the scholars in each institution?

Institutional Rankings in Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties are based on the quality and quantity of active scholars in each institution who are highly productive (number of publications) and have generated outstanding work of meaningful impact (citations) and excellent quality (h-index).

Suppose Institution A and Institution B both have the same number of outstanding scholars of the same high quality in terms of publications, citations, and h-indices in the Discipline of Surgery. However, Institution B has more total scholars in Surgery than Institution A. Our institutional rankings focus on the contributions of the highly productive and most influential scholars who are primarily responsible for the scholarly reputation of any institution. If we were to calculate the institutional rankings on a per capita basis, Institution B would be penalized relative to Institution A because of its size, despite both institutions having the same quality and quantity of highly productive scholars.

21- What are the time periods over which the scholar or institutional rankings are computed?

The number of publications, total citations, and h-indices are regularly updated on a monthly basis. However, scholar and institutional rankings are updated annually, considering performance over both the lifetime and the preceding five-year period leading up to the ranking year.

22- Does ScholarGPS™ rank Disciplines or Departments?

In most cases, the ranking of Disciplines and Fields within an institution corresponds to the ranking of Departments and Colleges or Schools for that institution. However, Disciplines within an institution may be ranked in situations where that Discipline does not exist as a separate unit or Department. This usually occurs when there is a critical mass of scholars working in a particular Discipline but they are affiliated with multiple units or Departments of the institution. For example, ScholarGPS™ may rank an institution in the category of Orthopedic Surgery, even though the institution does not have a Department of Orthopedic Surgery, if there is a critical mass of researchers working in multiple units of the institution such as in Departments of Surgery and Orthopedics.

23- Why do I see a publication history and/or rankings associated with a College or Department in the profile of a university when no such College or Department exists in that university?

In most cases, Disciplines and Fields within an institution correspond to actual Departments, Colleges or Schools in that institution. However, in some cases there is a critical mass of scholars working in a particular ranked Discipline which usually corresponds to an actual Department (College or School) but who are associated with other Units or Departments even when no such corresponding Department, Unit or College exists in that institution. For example, ScholarGPS™ may rank an institution in the category of Medicine, despite the fact that the institution has no School or College of Medicine because there may be a critical mass of scholars working in that institution whose research is associated with a Discipline in Medicine and/or who collaborate actively with colleagues outside their institution who are associated with Disciplines associated with Medicine.

24- Why is some quantitative information such as the number of total publications, total citations, and h-index that appears on the scholar profile pages different than the corresponding information in the scholar ranking tables?

Scholar profile pages are consistently updated with the latest information , including publications, citations, and h-index. In contrast, the data utilized for ranking tables, determining scholar and institution rankings, undergoes annual updates, reflecting evaluations as of December 31 of the preceding designated ranking year. Consequently, information under metric summary such as publications, citations, and h-index tend to appear higher on scholar profile pages compared to scholar ranking tables.

25- Does ScholarGPS™ rank all Specialties associated with a scholar?

ScholarGPS™ determines a scholar's Specialties based on the scholar's output. All of these Specialties are taken onto consideration when Speciality ranks are computed. However, in a scholar's profile page and the ranking table, ScholarGPS™ displays a maximum of the top 15 Specialties associated with each scholar based on the scholar's ranking within the full spectrum of the scholar's Speciality involvement.

26- Why are no rankings of scholars or institutions given for certain disciplines or specialties?

This can happen for a very few cases usually under one of two circumstances. It may be that the discipline or specialty is such that the corpus of material published in it is simply too small for any meaningful ranking to be applied to the scholars active in the discipline or specialty , and/or it may be that the discipline or specialty attracts significant interdisciplinary activity making it difficult to determine whether a scholar would be generally considered to be active in the discipline or specialty per se. An example of the latter would be certain areas in applied mathematics, where papers might be published by scholars who are truly active in a separate discipline such as computer science, electrical or mechanical engineering, physics etc. While such work may certainly fall under the area of applied mathematics, it would be controversial to assert that all scholars publishing in these areas are in fact mathematicians. In these cases the discipline or specialty is ranked with respect to the lifetime period but not with respect to the prior five year period. Obviously, there are no institutional rankings for a discipline or specialty if no scholar is ranked within that discipline or specialty.

27- Why is author order not taken into consideration in rankings?

Author order in a publication may be indicative of the degree of contribution to research. However, it is not possible to ascertain from author order alone what the fractional contributions of each author might have been to any given publication. Sometimes it is the first named author who is considered the most important contributor, and sometimes it is the last named author who is considered the most important contributor. Our policy is to assign equal weighting to all authors in a publication, which we believe is the only reasonable policy that can currently be adopted.

28- Are joint appointments taken into consideration when ranking scholars or institutions by Fields, Disciplines, or Specialties?

No. A scholar is assigned to one Field or Discipline but may be affiliated with multiple Specialties. However, scholars may change their Disciplines or Fields on their profile pages if they disagree with the assignment made by ScholarGPS™.

29- Are the ScholarGPS™ rankings of scholars and institutions archived?

Yes. ScholarGPS™ rankings for both scholars and institutions are archived upon creation of new rankings each year. The archived rankings are available only to Premium, Ultimate, or Institutional Assessment and Benchmarking subscribers.


1- What ScholarGPS™ services are available for users at no charge?

All users can freely search and view the publications of all authors and can access the full ScholarGPS™ citation index. All users can freely search and view all profile pages including Scholar profiles, Institution profiles, Field profiles, Discipline profiles, and Specialty profiles. All users can view Highly Ranked Scholars™ and the rankings of institutions and programs at no charge.

2- What services are available to individual subscribers?

Individual Basic membership is available at no cost. Members can view the full ScholarGPS™ profiles (for Scholars, Institutions, Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties) and can also view lists of Highly Ranked Scholars™ and top institutions worldwide in various Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties. Members are also given full access to the ScholarGPS™ citation index, and can search, sort, and filter all publications.

Individual Premium subscribers enjoy all the benefits of the Individual Basic plan. In addition, Individual Premium subscribers can access the quantitative ScholarGPS™ Ranks of all scholars worldwide on either a lifetime or prior five-year basis. Individual Premium subscribers also have access to the quantitative, comprehensive rankings of academic institutions worldwide including institutional rankings in individual Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties.

Individual Ultimate subscriptions are also available. In addition to the features of the Individual Basic and Individual Premium plans, users can view the rankings of all scholars in each category of productivity (publications), impact (citations), and quality (h-index), and can specify whether to include or exclude self-citations, and whether to weight publications and citations by the number of authors. In addition, users can view the profiles of top local, national, and international experts (on either lifetime or prior five-year bases) in specific Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties.

See subscription Plans and Pricing for more details.

3- What services are available to institutional subscribers?

Institutional Premium subscriptions provide the same privileges as the Individual Basic and Individual Premium plans (see Subscription Information FAQ 2) to all members of the subscribed institution.

Institutional Ultimate subscriptions provide the same privileges as the Individual Ultimate plan (see Subscription Information FAQ 2) for all members of the subscribed institution.

Assessment and Benchmarking subscriptions provide key academic administrators with an elevated, quantitative level of assessment and detailed benchmarking analysis of all scholars and all programs of the subscribed institution. Comparisons to other institutions are provided in terms of productivity, impact, and quality over all relevant Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties. See Subscription Information FAQ 4 for additional information.

Additional details of, and pricing for each Individual subscription plan are available at the footer of the website.

4- What are the benefits of an Institutional Assessment and Benchmarking subscription?

This subscription is intended for, and restricted to, the sole use of academic administrators (provosts, deans, chairs, heads, directors) and is not available as a general subscription option.

The Institutional Assessment and Benchmarking subscription provides unique, extensive, quantitative, and detailed information that allows administrators to assess and benchmark the scholarly performance of their Institution through comparisons with all institutions globally, with Institutions in their home country only, and with other specific institutions of interest.

Taking advantage of the powerful ScholarGPS™ algorithms, this subscription plan also provides administrators with the quantitative information necessary to fairly gauge the scholarly performance of each Field and each Discipline within their institution. This is achieved by ranking each Field within the Institution relative to the same Field at all other institutions, eliminating bias and confusion associated with different publication and citation traditions across Fields. Within each Field, each Discipline is ranked in a manner similar to the ranking of Fields; comparing the institution's Disciplines to the same Disciplines worldwide. As noted above, administrators can select other institutions for benchmarking purposes, with which they can compare scholarly performance at the institution, Field, and Discipline levels.

Ultimately, the Fields and Disciplines within your institution are ranked, not through a direct comparison with each other, but based on a comparison of the standing of each Field and each Discipline in your institution relative to the same Fields and the same Disciplines at all other institutions, accounting for the variation in the size of the faculty and traditions of scholarly publication from Field-to-Field, Discipline-to-Discipline, and institution-to-institution.

Other benefits include but are not limited to:

  1. The top scholars in your institution are identified. These are the exceptional individuals who stand out by comparing their scholarly record with all scholars overall (all Fields), or by comparing their records with all scholars in the same Field, or by comparing with all scholars in the same Discipline, and by comparing with all scholars in the same Specialties. Comparisons can be made on either a lifetime, or prior five-year basis.
  2. Highly cited scholars in your institution are identified by comparing their citations with all scholars overall (all Fields), or by comparing their citations with those of all scholars in the same Field, or by comparing their citations with those of all scholars in the same Discipline, and by comparing their citations with those of all scholars in the same Specialties. Comparisons can be made on either a lifetime, or prior five-year basis.
  3. The most highly cited publications from your institution are identified by comparing their citations with the citations of all publications overall (all Fields), or by comparing their citations with those of all publications in the same Field, or by comparing their citations with those of all publications in the same Discipline, and by comparing their citations with those of all publications in the same Specialties. Comparisons can be made on either a lifetime, or prior five-year basis.

Subscribed administrators are provided with tabulated, detailed overall (all Fields) rankings of all scholars in their institution and/or unit with respect to all Fields (Overall), specific Fields, Disciplines, and Specialties. Rankings of scholars are available either on a scholar lifetime basis, or on the most recent five years only. Administrators can fine tune their benchmarking based on author contribution credit (full credit for each author of a publication, or credit weighted by the number of authors of the publication), as well as citation inclusion (including all citations or excluding self-citations).

Importantly, every scholar has no-cost access to their detailed rankings upon registration with ScholarGPS™, and after claiming their profile. This unrestricted access allows all scholars to correct any errors in their profile and add missing information at no cost.

Please contact ScholarGPS™ via this link if you require additional information.

5- How do the Institutional subscription fees of ScholarGPS™ compare to those of others?

The features that are available from other scholarly service competitors with annual institutional subscriptions of approximately $80,000 to $200,000 are provided free with no required subscription to all users via the ScholarGPS™ Individual Basic plan. Furthermore, ScholarGPS™ provides additional unique and extensive features that are not available from any other scholarly service competitors with annual ScholarGPS™ institutional subscriptions ranging from $15,000 to $55,000.

6- Is my subscription renewed every year?

Individual subscribers are given the option to auto-renew at the time of the initial subscription. However, individual subscribers are allowed to cancel their auto-renewal. Institutional subscriptions should be actively renewed every year unless special arrangements are made.